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 Shipping Terms

Cargo Agent
The cargo agent seeks cargo for a vessel and is paid a commission as his remuneration.  He represents shippers and exporters of cargo, usually bulk, such as petroleum, grains, bauxite/alumina, lumber, fertilizer, gypsum, edible oils, caustic soda, sulphur, iron ore, coal, etc.

Charterer
Person who hires a vessel/aircraft either on voyage, flight or time basis.

Charterer's Agent
Agent of the ship which is chartered; acts on behalf of ship chartered at port of destination.

Chartering Agent
Person who acts for the merchant seeking a vessel to carry his goods.

Chartering Broker
A ship broker who fixes the whole ship (that is, arranges the chartering of a vessel) or a whole series of ships for one shipowner with one charterer for the carriage of a specific quantity in full ship loads. May also represent a vessel or an operator/line with a number of vessels and is responsible to find employment for that/those vessels. 

Carrier
The operator/entity who contracts to provide the transport service which may be by rail, road, ship, air, hovercraft or canal. For example it includes the air carrier issuing the Air Waybill and all air carriers that carry or undertake to carry the cargo; thereunder or to perform any other services related to such air carriage.

Common Carrier
Vessel/owner operator inviting clients in return for a consideration to transport goods from one place to another. See also Carrier.

Container
A Container is a transportable unit-permitting intermodal unitized merchandise distribution, which may be national or international. This may be involved on FCL or LCL type of consignment. Most Container types are built to ISO standards. The usual Container modular size is 2.45m x 2.45m with a varying length of 3.05m, 6.10m, 9.15m, or 12.20m. A wide variety of Containers exist including, inter alia, covered dry, top loader, bulk powder, bin type skeleton, refrigerated. It includes Twenty Foot Equivalent Units (TEUs) and Forty Foot Equivalent Units (FEUs).

See diagrams below:



Freight Forwarder
An entity/company responsible for undertaking export/import cargo arrangements on clients/shippers behalf at a seaport/airport, and so on. At a seaport it would include collection of freight, collection and issuing of Bills of Lading; notification of arrival and loading of goods; customs, import, and export documentation; payment of duties and levies as necessary, issuing of landing accounts and certificates of shipment; arranging sorting of cargo, cold storage, warehousing, transport to destination including near continent; cargo or damage surveys; Lloyds Agents surveys and so on. Also termed Forwarding Agent.

Hi-Cube Container
Included in definition of Oversized Container , usually 96” or 102” wide.

Intermodal Transport Chain
The elements/legs through which a consignment travels and is basically the ensemble of operations from the point of origin to the point of destination involving two modes of transport. It extends not only to the carriers involved but also to the forwarding agent, consignor, consignee, packers, handlers, and so on.

Intermodal Transport System
The provision of through connecting transport service(s) involving different modes of transport, i.e. road, rail, sea, air, etc.

Motor Vessel
A ship/steamship.

Ocean Transport Intermediary
Includes Freight Forwarders and NVOCCs.

Oversized Container
A Container longer than 40ft (12.20m) and includes a hi-cube container usually 96” or 102” wide.

Owner
In Protection & Indemnity Club membership terms, when related to an “entered ship” , it includes ship owner, owners in partnership, owners holding separate shares in severalty, part owner, mortgagee, trustee, charterer operator, manager or builder of such ship by or on whose behalf the same has been entered in the Association for insurance whether he be a member of the Association or not.

Owner Agent
See Ship Owner, Shipowner's Agent and Port Agent

Pallet
Commonly of mounted steel, fibreglass, aluminum or wooden platform, usually of 800 x 1200mm or 1000 x 1200m designed to accommodate and facilitate cargo transshipment and through cargo movement. Overall the load board has two decks separated by bearers or a simple deck supported by bearers constructed with a view to transport and stacking, and with the overall height reduced to a minimum compatible with handling by forklift truck and pallet trucks.

Port Agent
An Agent at a particular port is primarily involved with looking after the needs of his Principal which is usually a shipowner. In such a situation this would involve the provision of berth resources; cargo handling equipment; dock labour; transport distribution; customs clearance; victualling needs of the vessel; ship crew needs such as crew change over; documentation; liaison with port authorities; general security; provision of shipboard pilotage and tugs assistance; and so on. Overall the Agent must ensure the prompt turn round of the Principal vessels and efficient processing of cargo including customer liaison and cargo/distribution/collection.

Ship Owner
A person(s)/company/entity which owns a particular ship and thereby accepts all the legal responsibilities/obligations in accord with the country's maritime law to which the ship is registered.

Shipowner's Agent
A person/company who acts on behalf of a shipowner. See also Port Agent .

Skid
Shrink rapped palletized cargo.

Through Bill of Lading
Acknowledgement in Bill of Lading that cargo shipped between two specified ports (loading & discharge) plus inland portion of the transit.

Transport or Carriage Equipment
Includes chassis, containers, tanks and trailers, BUT NOT LIMITED TO THESE ITEMS.

Unitized Cargo or Freight
Goods normally conveyed in containers, closed wagons and road trailers or lorries, e.g. manufactured products and perishable goods.

Vessel Owning Common Carrier
When the line owns the vessel. See also Common Carrier

 


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